# Embedding Ring in Ring¶

In this chapter we will learn about embedding Ring in Ring programs and applications.

## Embedding Ring in Ring without sharing the State¶

From Ring 1.0 we already have functions for embedding Ring in the C language. Also we can execute Ring code inside Ring programs using the eval() function. In this release we provide functions for embedding Ring in Ring programs without sharing the state.

1. Quick integration for Ring programs and applications together without conflicts.
2. Execute and run Ring code in safe environments that we can trace.

Example:

pState = ring_state_init()
ring_state_runcode(pState,"See 'Hello, World!'+nl")
ring_state_runcode(pState,"x = 10")

pState2 = ring_state_init()
ring_state_runcode(pState2,"See 'Hello, World!'+nl")
ring_state_runcode(pState2,"x = 20")

ring_state_runcode(pState,"see x +nl")
ring_state_runcode(pState2,"see x +nl")

v1 = ring_state_findvar(pState,"x")
v2 = ring_state_findvar(pState2,"x")

see v1[3] + nl
see V2[3] + nl

ring_state_delete(pState)
ring_state_delete(pState2)


Output:

Hello, World!
Hello, World!
10
20
10
20


## Serial Execution of Programs¶

We can execute application after another application using ring_state_main()

Example:

chdir(exefolder()+"/../applications/formdesigner")
ring_state_main('formdesigner.ring')
chdir(exefolder()+"/../applications/cards")
ring_state_main('cards.ring')


## ring_state_setvar()¶

Using ring_state_setvar() we can set variables value

The value could be (String, Number, List or C Pointer)

We need this function to quickly pass lists and C pointers to the Sub Ring Environment

Syntax:

ring_state_setvar(oState,cVariableName,Value)


Example:

load "guilib.ring"

myapp   = null
win     = null

func main
myapp = new qApp {
win = new qWidget() {
move(100,100)
resize(600,400)
new qPushButton(win) {
setText("Test")
setClickEvent("Test()")
}
# We need this because using load 'guilib.ring' in
# the sub environment
# Will create timers by Qt and closing the window
# will not be enough to close the application
oFilter = new qAllEvents(win)
oFilter.setCloseEvent("myapp.quit()")
win.installeventfilter(oFilter)
show()
}
exec()
}

func test
pState = ring_state_init()
ring_state_runcode(pState,"x = NULL")
# Pass String
ring_state_setvar(pState,"x","hello")
ring_state_runcode(pState,"? x")
# Pass Number
ring_state_setvar(pState,"x",100)
ring_state_runcode(pState,"? x")
# Pass List
ring_state_setvar(pState,"x",["one","two","three"])
ring_state_runcode(pState,"? x")
# Pass Object
# We can't pass the Ring Object (win)
# Because Objects store pointers to the Class Information
# And the class is related to the Parent Ring Environment
# And the sub Ring environment can't access it
# But we can pass C pointers like win.pObject
ring_state_setvar(pState,"x",win.pObject)
# Now we create the object again but using the same C pointer
# So we have access to the Same window in the parent Ring enviroment
ring_state_runcode(pState,"
new qWidget {
pObject = x
setwindowtitle('Message from the Sub Ring Environment')
}
")
ring_state_delete(pState)


## ring_state_new() and ring_state_mainfile()¶

Using ring_state_new() and ring_state_mainfile() we can run Ring programs from Ring programs

But unlike ring_state_main(), Here we can control when to delete the Ring state!

This is important when we run GUI programs from GUI programs

Because they will share the GUI Library (RingQt), And In this case the caller will call

qApp.Exec()

So the sub program, will not stop and will return to the Main program

Here deleting the State of the sub programs will lead to a problem when we run the sub program events

So keeping the state is important for sub GUI programs hosted in GUI programs.

Example:

load "guilib.ring"

func main
new qApp {
win = new qWidget() {
setWindowTitle("Test ring_state_mainfile()")
resize(400,400) move(100,100)
btn = new qPushButton(Win) {
settext("test")
setclickevent("mytest()")
}
show()
}
exec()
}

func mytest
pState = ring_state_new()
ring_state_mainfile(pState,"runprogram.ring")
# Here we don't delete the state if we will run GUI application
# So we can run the GUI application events
// ring_state_delete(pState)


If you will use this feature, remember to update the previous example based on your application needs

So you can call ring_state_delete() at some point to avoid the memory leak!

## Runtime Errors when Embedding Ring in Ring¶

Starting from Ring 1.8

When embedding Ring in Ring, the error in the hosted environment will not close the host

Example:

? "Start the test!"

pState = ring_state_init()

ring_state_runcode(pState," ? 'Let us try having an error' ? x")

ring_state_delete(pState)

? ""
? "End of test!"


Output:

Start the test!
Let us try having an error

Line 1 Error (R24) : Using uninitialized variable : x
in file Ring_EmbeddedCode
End of test!